Sejarah Batik (History of Batik)


R.A Kartini in Batik

Batik, sangat berkaitan sekali dengan kerajaan Majapahit dan kerajaan sesudahnya. Batik adalah kerajinan yang memiliki nilai seni tinggi dan telah menjadi bagian dari budaya Indonesia (khususnya Jawa) sejak lama. Perempuan-perempuan Jawa di masa lampau menjadikan keterampilan mereka dalam membatik sebagai mata pencaharian, sehingga di masa lalu pekerjaan membatik adalah pekerjaan eksklusif perempuan sampai ditemukannya “Batik Cap” yang memungkinkan masuknya laki-laki ke dalam bidang ini. Ada beberapa pengecualian bagi fenomena ini, yaitu batik pesisir yang memiliki garis maskulin seperti yang bisa dilihat pada corak “Mega Mendung”, dimana di beberapa daerah pesisir pekerjaan membatik adalah lazim bagi kaum lelaki.
Tradisi membatik pada mulanya merupakan tradisi yang turun temurun, sehingga kadang kala suatu motif dapat dikenali berasal dari batik keluarga tertentu. Beberapa motif batik dapat menunjukkan status seseorang. Bahkan sampai saat ini, beberapa motif batik tadisional hanya dipakai oleh keluarga keraton Yogyakarta dan Surakarta

Corak batik

Ragam corak dan warna Batik dipengaruhi oleh berbagai pengaruh asing. Awalnya, batik memiliki ragam corak dan warna yang terbatas, dan beberapa corak hanya boleh dipakai oleh kalangan tertentu. Namun batik pesisir menyerap berbagai pengaruh luar, seperti para pedagang asing dan juga pada akhirnya, para penjajah. Warna-warna cerah seperti merah dipopulerkan oleh Tionghoa, yang juga mempopulerkan corak phoenix. Bangsa penjajah Eropa juga mengambil minat kepada batik, dan hasilnya adalah corak bebungaan yang sebelumnya tidak dikenal (seperti bunga tulip) dan juga benda-benda yang dibawa oleh penjajah (gedung atau kereta kuda), termasuk juga warna-warna kesukaan mereka seperti warna biru. Batik tradisonal tetap mempertahankan coraknya, dan masih dipakai dalam upacara-upacara adat, karena biasanya masing-masing corak memiliki perlambangan masing-masing.

batik


Sumber : Wikipedia and Batik Markets

Depending on the quality of the art work, dyes, and fabric, the finest batik tulis halus cloth can fetch several thousand dollars, reflecting the fact that it probably took several months to make. Batik tulis has both sides of the cloth ornamented.
In Indonesia, traditionally, batik was sold in 2.25-meter lengths used for kain panjang or sarong for kebaya dress. It can also be worn by wrapping it around the body, or made into a hat known as blangkon. Infants are carried in batik slings decorated with symbols designed to bring the child luck. Certain batik designs are reserved for brides and bridegrooms, as well as their families. The dead are shrouded in funerary batik.[1] Other designs are reserved for the Sultan and his family or their attendants. A person’s rank could be determined by the pattern of the batik
For special occasions, batik was formerly decorated with gold leaf or dust. This cloth is known as prada (a Javanese word for gold) cloth. Gold decorated cloth is still made today; however, gold paint has replaced gold dust and leaf.
Batik garments play a central role in certain rituals, such as the ceremonial casting of royal batik into a volcano. In the Javanese naloni mitoni “first pregnancy” ceremony, the mother-to-be is wrapped in seven layers of batik, wishing her good things. Batik is also prominent in the tedak siten ceremony when a child touches the earth for the first time. Batik is also part of the labuhan ceremony when people gather at a beach to throw their problems away into the sea.[8]
Contemporary batik, while owing much to the past, is markedly different from the more traditional and formal styles. For example, the artist may use etching, discharge dyeing, stencils, different tools for waxing and dyeing, wax recipes with different resist values and work with silk, cotton, wool, leather, paper or even wood and ceramics. The wide diversity of patterns reflects a variety of influences, ranging from Arabic calligraphy, European bouquets and Chinese phoenixes to Japanese cherry blossoms and Indian or Persian peacocks.[1].
In Indonesia, batik popularity has its up and downs. Historically it was essential for ceremonial costumes and it was worn as part of a kebaya dress, which was commonly worn every day. According to Professor Michael Hitchcock of the University of Chichester (UK), batik “has a strong political dimension. The batik shirt was invented as a formal non-Western shirt for men in Indonesia in the 1960s.[9] It waned from the 1960s onwards, because more and more women chose western clothes. However, batik clothing has revived somewhat in the 21st century, due to the effort of Indonesian fashion designers to innovate the kebaya by incorporating new colors, fabrics, and patterns. Batik is a fashion item for many young people in Indonesia, such as a shirt, dress, or scarf for casual wear. For a formal occasion, a kebaya is standard for women. It is also acceptable for men to wear batik in the office or as a replacement for jacket-and-tie at certain receptions.
In one form or another, batik has worldwide popularity. Nelson Mandela wears a batik shirt on formal occasions, the South Africans call it a Madiba shirt. The Malaysian singer Siti Nurhaliza wore an Indonesian kebaya and batik on her wedding day. The late mother of United States president Barack Obama, Ann Dunham was an avid collector of Batik. In 2009, an exhibition of Dunham’s textile batik art collection (A Lady Found a Culture in its Cloth: Barack Obama’s Mother and Indonesian Batiks) toured six museums in the United States, finishing the tour at the Textile Museum.[10].

batik


Batik is often worn in Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, and southern Thailand, brought there by Indonesian immigrants or merchants in the 19th century. The flight attendants of Indonesian, Singaporean, and Malaysian national airlines all wear batik in their uniform. Batik sarongs are also designed as wraps for casual beachwear.
Now, not only is batik used as a material to clothe the human body, its uses also include furnishing fabrics, heavy canvas wall hangings, tablecloths and household accessories. Batik techniques are used by famous artists to create batik paintings which grace many homes and offices

Source : Wikipedia and Batik Markets

2 Responses

  1. salam kenal gan

    blog walkingniiihh

    http://dedewinasis.wordpress.com

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